What is: The Heart Mountain Relocation Center and the Heart Mountain Interpretive Center, Park County, Wyoming between Powell and Cody

What was: The Heart Mountain Relocation Center is one of the ten internment camps built to house Japanese people in the United States who were forcibly relocated from the West Coast during World War II. The Heart Mountain Relocation Center is one of the few relocation centers with buildings still standing today. It was the fourth largest relocation center.

Heart Mountain was a self-contained operation with residential and administrative buildings. There were 650 buildings and structures at the Center, housed 10,000 evacuees making it the third largest city in Wyoming at the time. Nine guard towers and barbed wire perimeter surrounded the residential barracks. The buildings were wood framed with black tar paper exteriors. Apartments ranged from 16 feet by 20 feet up to 24 feet by 20 feet divided, the latter designed for a family of six. Each apartment contained army cots, two blankets and a pillow, one light and one burning stove. There were also mess halls, a recreational facility, two toilet and laundry facilities. The center had a hospital, schools, a garment factory, cabinet shop, sawmill, and silk screen shop staffed primarily by internees.

385 residents of Heart Mountain served in the military, many becoming members of the famed all-Japanese 442nd Regimental Combat Team, one of the most decorated units in the U.S. military. Eleven of the soldiers from Heart Mountain were killed, 52 were wounded in combat, and two received the nation’s highest military award, the Medal of Honor.

Source: National Park Service

Scarred Places: Guard tower. What is: the smoke stack in the background and an old guard tower are among the remains of the Heart Mountain internment camp. What was: From 1942-1945, Heart Mountains was one of ten sites built to confine 120,000 Japanese living in America and relocated from their homes, mostly on the West Coast. Heart Moountain facility housed about 10,000 people in 450 barracks, each containing six apartments. The largest apartments were simply single rooms measuring 24 feet by 20 feet. The units were eventually outfitted with a potbellied stove, none had bathrooms. Internees used shared latrines. None of the apartments had kitchens. The residents ate their meals in mess halls. A highschool was built in 1943 for about 1500 students. (Source: https://www.wyohistory.org/encyclopedia/brief-history-heart-mountain-relocation-center). Local reactions to the internment ran the gamut from people believing this was the wrong thing to do to others believing the barracks and living conditions were too good for those interned. On the highway between Cody and Powell Wyoming is an interpretive center in a building that resembles the long lost barracks. #scarredplacesphotoseries
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What is: Historic Jamestowne, VA

What was: In 1607, Jamestown is where the English established their first permanent in the New World. For a long time the actual site of Jamestown was believed to have washed into the James River by erosion and tides.

The winter of 1609-10 is known as the “Starving Time” caused by drought and a fear of leaving the fort. The colonists ate anything they could: various animals, leather from their shoes and belts, and sometimes fellow settlers who had already died. By early 1610, 80-90% had died due to starvation and disease.

It was here that Captain John Smith explored the Chesapeake Bay and tributaries making overtures and enemies with various Indian Tribes. In 1612, John Rolfe helped turn the settlement into a profitable venture with the successful planting of tobacco seeds he had brought from elsewhere, making it the long-awaited cash crop for the Virginia Company and underpinning of American economic growth. It was also the site of glass making, considered the first manufacturing business in the New World.

The first representative assembly in English North America convened in the Jamestown church on July 30, 1619. Also, in 1619, the Virginia Company recruited and shipped 100 women to the colony to become wives and start families. It was also the year of the first documented African slaves arriving, adding the human resources needed for labor intensive tobacco crops. In another first, in 1624 Richard Cornish, a ships master, was executed for an alleged sexual attack on one of his male stewards, the first recorded sodomy prosecution in American history.

What is: a scenic view of the Arkansas River at Fort Smith, Arkansas.

What was: 10,000 Native Americans died during removal or soon upon arrival in “Indian Territory.” Part of the Trail of Tears included this water route.  The territory would subsequently be opened to settlers and became the state of Oklahoma.

What is: an abandoned cotton gin between Clarksdale and Friars Point, MS.

What was: Founded in the 1830s and continuing to operate into the 20th century, the King and Anderson Plantation was an enormous spread of seventeen thousand acres just northwest of Clarksdale and reputed to be the largest family plantation in Mississippi. Originally, large plantations had their own private cotton gins. Over time, the increasing number of smaller farms, the emergence of sharecropping after the civil war and new technologies led to the rise of public gins.

By the early twentieth century, large, public facilities that not only ginned cotton but also sold seeds to cottonseed oil firms, populated nearly every town and county in the state’s cotton belt. In addition to the economic function, public gins served a social function. “Trips to the gin provided farmers living in the far reaches of Mississippi’s counties with breaks in the tedium and solitude of toiling on small, isolated farms. The same gins served black and white farmers, and gin operators made no efforts to serve whites before blacks. While waiting in line to gin their cotton, farmers of both races came together to discuss pests, weather patterns, and prices. As shared public spaces, therefore, gins offered brief respites from the stifling confines of Mississippi’s racial caste system.” Source: https://mississippiencyclopedia.org/entries/cotton-gins/.

What is: At 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome is the highest point in the highest point in Tennessee, and the third highest mountain east of the Mississippi. On clear days views expand over a 100 miles…although air pollution now impacts that.

What Was: The Cherokee Indians, a branch of the Iroquois nation, trace their history in this region back 1000 years. Clingmans Dome was a sacred spot for the Cherokee where the Magic Lake was seen. The Magic Lake was a place to go when you were old and sick, if you had loved the earth and family, to be made well again. During the Indian Removal Period of the 1800s and the Trail of Tears, the mountains were a safe refuge and place to hide from the soldiers.