What is: fields and fields and fields of cotton…some growing, some harvested, some planted.

What was: “Cotton is King” In the years before the Civil War—American planters in the South continued to grow tobacco and rice but Cotton emerged as the antebellum South’s major commercial crop. Cotton was one of the world’s first luxury commodities, after sugar and tobacco. By 1860, the southern states were producing two-thirds of the world’s cotton.

In 1793, Eli Whitney revolutionized the production of cotton when he invented the cotton gin, a device that separated the seeds from raw cotton, rather than requiring all manual labor. The cotton gin allowed a slave to remove the seeds from fifty pounds of cotton a day, compared to one pound if done by hand. After the seeds had been removed, the cotton was pressed into bales. These bales, weighing about four hundred to five hundred pounds, were wrapped in burlap cloth and sent down the Mississippi River.

Nearly all the exported cotton was shipped to Great Britain, fueling its burgeoning textile industry at the time. They also shipped to mills in the northern US. The South’s dependence on cotton was matched by its dependence on slaves to harvest the cotton. Some southerners believed that their region’s reliance on a single cash crop and its use of slaves to produce it gave the South economic independence and made it immune from the effects of industrialization that were occurring in the North. Between the years 1820 and 1860, approximately 80 percent of the global cotton supply was produced in the United States. Source: ushistory/chapter/the-economics-of-cotton/

What is: The Pecos Mission circa 1717, as restored with archaeological ruins around them

What Was: Native people inhabited the Pecos Valley for 1200 years. Pecos was one of the largest and most powerful pueblos. In the early 1600s the Spanish established churches. The Spanish arrival brought sweeping changes impacting the lives of the Pecos people. Spaniards actively tried to eradicate every aspect of the ancestral pueblo life.

In August of 1680, the Pueblos revolted, driving the Spaniards out. They destroyed the church. By 1690s the Spanish returned and by the early 1700s there was a new church built. By the 1780s disease, raids and drought decimated the population. From 1821 to 1880, the area was a major trade route between Missouri and Santa Fe.